|Title||:||Die Französische Revolution|
|Format Type||:||Audio Book|
|Number of Pages||:||255 Pages|
|Status||:||Available For Download|
|Last checked||:||21 Minutes ago!|
Die Französische Revolution Reviews
Axel Kuhn asks: may a country receive freedom as a gift? This ever-timely question introduces his analysis of the two German republics formed during the French revolution: the Mainz Republic, Germany’s first democratic state, and the Cisrhenian Republic. He goes through various anecdotes and statistics in order to prove that German, rather than French, revolutionists were the primary force in forming the two republics.Although he never returns to the freedom-as-gift question, his thesis indicates a conditioned Yes. The condition: If a country’s interference is to be considered a gift and not an invasion, the recipient must be willing. Willingness is an active state. What is the nature of this activity? In his presentation of the revolution within France he used a vehicle theory:Bauernunruhen und städtische Unruhen waren ein wichtiger Bestandteil der als bürgerlich zu bezeichnenden Französischen Revolution. Sie waren sozusagen ein Vehikel für die Durchsetzung bürgerlicher Interessen. Es ist auch nicht zu übersehen, daß sich die bäuerlichen Ziele in der Französischen Revolution nicht wesentlich von denen früherer Aufstände unterschieden.” (40) In Germany he describes the power hierarchy of revolutionary activity rather differently. Nimmt man alle diese Initiativen zusammen, so wird man sagen dürfen, daß die französische Besetzung nur das Ventil für ein lange aufgestautes deutsches Freiheitsverlangen öffnete. (190)I call that his valve theory. So Kuhn would have a vehicle in France, with revolutionary citizens as the driver and hungry farmers as the driven, and in Germany he'd have a valve, with revolutionary citizens as the liquid or gas and the French military occupation as the flow modifier. Republican sentiments were already brewing; the French occupation only provided the psychological milieu in which those energies could be taken seriously. However, wasn’t psychological milieu exactly what allowed spiritual citizens to drive feisty farmers in France? The truth is, French military success allowed a minority of German rebels to momentarily gain political influence. Kuhn’s attempt to describe German citizens as an essential force is sophistry. Why does he go to the trouble? Of course, a scholar must carve his own niche in the bunch. I also detect a patriot hungry for a noble history. Note the “dürfen” quoted above, indicating that he has found himself permission to express what he already wanted to express. The following quote is also telling. Die Wurzeln deutscher Demokratie greifen tiefer in den Boden der Vergangenheit hinein, als oft angenommen wird, und sie verbinden sich mit denjenigen, aus denen das moderne Frankreich erwachsen ist.” (202)Kuhn instinctively craves deep roots for the passions that inspire him, perhaps justify him. As a patriot, he'd allow that Germany’s roots be related (verbunden) to French roots, but not a passive outgrowth from French roots. Humans treasure origins, and chaste/pure origins above all. So the historian succumbed to instinct, but I don’t blame him. One must psychologically justify the time spent hacking away at history!I justify my time by founding spiritual implications, such as: The body is a car. Not true, but the necessary proposition to Kuhn's version of history as science. On Change: An Other can only give to a Spirit what that Spirit already desires, and a Spirit can only desire what it already nascently posseses, because giving requires recognition/similarity between the Spirit and the Other. The Spirit's gift is the Spirit itself, under different circumstances. The transaction occurs because the Spirit is fed up with itself, and craves novelty, but to satisfy that craving, a self-peaceful Spirit may only assimilate additional circumstances. Politically and personally, forms of government are overthrown and continued, not eliminated and replaced. The one exception is successful genocide. His second major thesis is credible and dull. He holds that reform and revolution aren't contradictory. A reformer becomes revolutionary if the government resists. In France; reformative activity led to revolution; in Prussia, revolutionary activity led to reform. This means that governments cause their own revolutions. No revolution took place in Germany, because there was no centralized government that could fail and thereby spark a general revolution. Wenn es diese soziale Konfliktpotential in Deutschland ebenso wie in Frankreich gab, so besteht der Unterschied zwischen beiden Ländern nur darin, daß sich in Deutschland, anders als in Frankreich, die Revolten von Bauern, Handwerkern und Studenten nicht mit einer politischen Revolution des aufgeklärten Bürgertums verbunden haben. Es fehlte dafür im Deutschen Reich ein politisches Zentrum, das die Rolle hätte übernehmen können, die Paris für Frankreich spielte. (182) Sudden progress occurs when a line between big powerful ruler and little meaningless speck is visibly drawn in the sand, otherwise events flow less dramatically. These two scenarios differ only in spectacle, the progress is essentially the same.