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ფსიქოლოგია: ძალიან მოკლე შესავალი

მოცემულ წიგნში ახსნილია ფსიქოლოგიის ზოგიერთი წამყვანი იდეა და მათი პრაქტიკული შესაბამისობა, სწორედ ამიტომ წარმოადგენს იგი ფსიქოლოგიის საუკეთესო შესავალს მათთვის, ვისაც აინტერესებს ადამიანი გონების შეცნობა....

Title : ფსიქოლოგია: ძალიან მოკლე შესავალი
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ISBN : 9789941133459
Format Type : Mass Market Paperback
Number of Pages : 200 Pages
Status : Available For Download
Last checked : 21 Minutes ago!

ფსიქოლოგია: ძალიან მოკლე შესავალი Reviews

  • Julia
    2019-01-12 04:19

    "Psychology" is the second book I have read from the series "A Very Short Introduction" and I must admit that I am not disappointed. Before reading this book I had no idea about psychology, so I was (and still am) complete muggle when it comes to that field. The book, however, describes breifly many different parts of psychology, what is it after all, how can it be used in our everyday lives and moreover, how it is used when we do not even notice the workings of psychologists! The books leaves a reader with this urgent feeling to find out more about the topic as soon as possible, and for sure it is a good start to look for some interesting case studies and experiments. There have been several described, which are also quite popularized among other laypeople, just like me. The most important aspect for me was the simple and understandable language, which did not always happen in books written by experts and professors. I can say with a light heart that I was able to understand everything what the authors tried to convey in their work and I will try to take it a bit further by reading the recommended books to each chapter.The book is basic and quite short as the title implies, which makes it available to all readers, for those who already know some things about psychology or those, who start their journey with this exciting topic.

  • Scott
    2019-01-11 08:22

    This book was a nice refresher on the major topics in psychology, while lacking some of the depth and utility I had hoped for. I wanted a book that would concisely and persuasively teach me established psychological findings. Instead the authors spent much time (necessarily) delineating the convoluted approaches of different psychological schools of thought. The human mind is complex, certainly, and not every book can be perfect for every person. Also, this book is a decade old—I wonder what else has happened since then in psychology.Topics: defining psychology, perception, learning and memory, reasoning and communicating, motivation and emotion, developmental psychology, individual differences, abnormal psychology, social psychology, utility of psychology.Most important topics for further study:1. Uncertainty/overconfidence/changing one’s mind. Facilitating proper uncertainty is really important if we hope that the best evidence will really change minds.2. In the Robbers’ Cave experiment, boys at camp were divided into two groups and came to internalize prejudices against the other group, then were able to lose those prejudices because they worked together on a shared project. This is a great rationale for interfaith work, in which the goal is to overcome prejudices against people of another belief system by working together on a shared goal (such as feeding the homeless), clearing the way for honest, friendship-based discussions of values and philosophy. And importantly, “contact to reduce prejudice should be based on equality and encourage the pursuit of common goals rather than competition.”3. What is the current state of knowledge in emotional intelligence? If there is one area I could improve, this might be it…4. Personal identity and certainty about identity is important in making life choices. This seems really important—how is identity formed for an individual typically? In the studies cited here, how did the individuals who were certain about their identities describe this? In terms of uniqueness, traits, hobbies, a general feeling, or a simple affirmation?Other noteworthy topics:1. Sensory deprivation and understimulation. What types of stimulation are helpful/necessary for a productive and happy life?2. The idea that punishment is ineffective at changing behavior because it is painful but uninformative, often leading to temporary and overly specific behavioral changes, and can even be accidentally rewarding. These are good reasons to spare the rod. Of course, my dad cried when he spanked me—I think those tears did more than the paddle did, but one wouldn’t have happened without the other… 3. In what ways is depression adaptive? I have heard that depressed people sometimes see things more clearly, but I certainly feel less creative and more cynical when I’m depressed. Not that I know what true, deep clinical depression feels like.4. Just something to remember: goal-setting almost always improves performance.5. They say we no longer use lie detector tests because they are unreliable—is this true? It is still in limited use, but diminishing. I’m surprised we haven’t come up with new tests!6. Development: attachment is important during infancy, but people are surprisingly resilient to childhood trauma.7. Erikson’s stages of development resound with me—how seriously are they taken today? They seem oversimplified too.8. Says the idea that older people are more rigid is a mostly untrue stereotype—really? Hmm. Either way, believing that parents are rigid because of their age could be beneficial in spite of its truth, as it might reduce intergenerational conflict.9. Getting into an entirely politically incorrect issue… they cite a study showing that German babies fathered by black and white American soldiers have similar IQs to argue that the black/white IQ gap is not due to genetic inferiority. This would of course not eliminate the possibility that there is recessive genetic inferiority. Disclaimer: intelligence tests have all kinds of cultural bias, possibly unavoidably, so any attempt to show one race genetically inferior to another in terms of intelligence may be meaningless. And of course even if it was shown, would it be helpful? I like to think it would be—that the truth sets us free—but perhaps in this case it wouldn’t. That brings to mind another important topic in addition to race: truth and lying.10. Dietary and vitamin supplements were shown to improve IQ in children. Which diets/vitamins, and would they help me or only malnourished kids? Regardless, improving nutrition could be an easy life improvement for me.11. There is a significant correlation between birth order and IQ—how significant? Not very, says a quick search. In fact, second-borns may be more successful in the long run.12. The fundamental attribution error - we tend to overestimate the importance of personality rather than circumstances in explaining another person’s behavior.13. Abnormal behavior – if it “causes significant distress or prevents you from meeting important goals or developing meaningful relationships, then it is seen as dysfunctional and worthy of treatment.” The existential definition says that it results from conflicting demands, such as showing respect to someone humiliating you. I can see how this would be true.14. Democratic vs. authoritarian management strategies – the former is shown to be more effective most of the time. How democratic is the most effective version? After a brief discussion with a friend I’m concluding that different strategies are good at different times—authoritarian during crisis, for example.15. Cognitive labeling theory says that the way we process emotions is through labeling each with a concept—makes sense. And since these processes are intertwined, changing the label for a particular feeling can affect our experience of it. Hence the popular cognitive therapy. This seems successful and growing in acceptance, probably worthy of further reading. And it seems related to meditation—observing feelings without labeling them, or observing the labels we are quick to attach.16. False memory syndrome freaks me out. I hope I can trust my memory.17. Systematic desensitization allows people to overcome phobias by confronting them in a safe environment. Could be valuable…18. Psychobabble—they use words like ‘validity’ and ‘reliability,’ among others, in entirely nonstandard ways. This certainly doesn’t help psychology communicate with other disciplines and the public.19. Further reading from the bibliography: Viktor Frankl, Man’s Search for Meaning; and Daniel Goleman, Emotional Intelligence: Why it Can Matter More than IQ.

  • Ahmad Sharabiani
    2019-01-09 10:29

    Psychology: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions #6), Gillian Butler, Freda McManusPsychology is part of everyone's experience: it influences the way we think about everything from education and intelligence to relationships and emotions, advertising, and criminality. People readily behave as amateur psychologists, offering explanations for what we think, feel, and do. But what exactly are psychologists trying to help us understand? What scientific grounding do they have for their approach?

  • jzthompson
    2019-01-11 08:17

    Concise and clear but also wide ranging. I'd personally have liked a bit more on the history of psychology, but realistically that's probably a subject for another book. Really good.

  • Orestis
    2019-01-21 11:31

    Succeeds at what it sets out to do - give readers a first glimpse into the field of psychology, and the various concepts and methods that shape it, providing opportunities for wider reading there where information cannot be explored in depth.

  • Xuankang Lin
    2019-01-22 03:28

    It's best for high school students who are considering their majors in college.

  • Zoe
    2019-01-21 07:35

    A very interesting, concise, understandable overview of psychology, great for anyone who's introducing themself to the topic.

  • Sitdhibong Laokok
    2019-01-18 03:13

    เล่มเล็กๆ แต่เนื้อหาแน่นมาก ปูพื้นฐานเกี่ยวกับจิตวิทยาได้เป็นอย่างดี

  • Isaac
    2019-01-01 05:14

    I trained as an economist and reading this book was my own acknowledgement that, like economics, people (me included) talk about psychology without ever reading about it. I liked the introduction to the book and how it sets out the key issues to be considered - I found it a useful framework:1. What gets into the mind - perception and attention?2. What stays in the mind - learning and memory?3. How do we use what's in the mind - thinking reasoning and communicating?4. Why do we do what we do - motivation and emotion?5. Is there a set pattern for human development?6. Can we categorise people?7. What happens when things go wrong?8. How do we influence each other?However I did not feel that the book lived up to my expectations from the introduction. It is not easy to write this type of books and it is difficult to absorb all the richness of a field. The authors did not win me over with comments about issues that cannot be explained in a book of this type. It is either not important in which case I don't need to know or it is important and the authors should explain it. This book could be a useful companion to an A level (or equivalent) qualification in psychology.

  • SJ Loria
    2019-01-23 06:34

    Psychology - A Very Short Introduction Fair warning, I'm going to be reading a lot of psychology books and GRE prep books for the next few months. I'm trying to get, rather, remain, excited about that. Positive self-talk, repeat. Anyway I ordered this book because I read the Oxford Very Short Introduction to the Meaning of Life and it was fantastic. Five stars. Instant classic. So in my mind I created an image of what Oxford Short Introductions should be, and this wasn't quite up to that image. Freud would call this agitation repression, a humanist would pat me on the back and lead me to a more positive answer, a behaviorist would shock me into different thinking, an existentialist would ask me if I needed more meaning in my life, etc. This book is a good, cursory introduction to several topics in psychology. It doesn't really get too deep into anything, and it also doesn't really have any distinctive voice that it employs. It's a step above Wikipedia in terms of depth of knowledge. The book ties the story of psychology together fairly well, presents different theories with equal treatment, and the graphs , diagrams and pictures throughout the book are quite useful. Another very useful aspect of this book is the compact size. This fits in your back pocket, so it's easy to read and carry around. A Very Short Introduction, not a fantastic, change your life, put your hair on ends and illuminate you kind of Introduction, but that's fine. Quotes (from only a few sections of the book mind you, but the level of depth here might give you an idea of whether or not you'd like to read it) Thinking uses up energy...One of Kahneman's most important suggestions is that we have evolved two systems of thinking which are distinguished by their use of energy: a fast one that costs us little, and a slow one that costs much more. 44 Paying attention helps acquire and use our knowledge, but this comes at a cost - quite literally. The division of labour between System 1 and System 2 is highly efficient. 45 There appears to be good support for strong links between images of eyes, the sense of being observed, and the decision to engage in this type of cooperative [or morally upright] behavior. 48 Psychologists have also found that the way in which a test is administered and the conditions of testing can influence the results. If the lighting is poor, or the person does not hear or understand the instructions, [or, insert other distracting factors here] then their score may be artificially low. Thus the conditions under which the test is administered must also be standardized - as far as possible the test must be given to each person in exactly the same way, under similar conditions, if the results are to be valid. 86 A two factor model supposes that intelligence is made up of a general factor and specific factors, whereas other models suggest that there are a number of independent specific factors. 87 Mental ability increases during the first 18 years of life. [Also personality remains stable past 30, but I can't find that citation at this time] 88

  • True Lin
    2018-12-28 09:26

    I think it's very helpful for me to know what is psychology and how to use your common sense in it. I knew more about science in spirit and intelligence test.

  • Jaya
    2018-12-25 05:29

    Review from Amazon.com:I skimmed through another review to help get my thoughts in order, and he hit on exactly how I felt about this book - it is very mainstream. Lists very practical uses of psychology, and seems very interested in establishing it as a scientific discipline - understandable, because in my experience psychology is not taken very seriously as a science. I would have liked to see more mention of fringe psychology and other exciting and not-as-mainstream psychological disciplines. Spent absolutely no time talking about the unconscious mind, which I would think is pretty important in talking about the science of mental life.Agree with another reviewer that they did not mention many famous or influential psychologists, but only realized this in hindsight.A few grammar errors that I noticed, didn't detract from the content, but did jar my reading just a little bit.I did take AP Psych in high school, and this book did mention a lot of material we covered in class - I was actually pretty excited to see all the things I remembered.All in all, a pretty good introduction to (mainstream) psychology. Personally, it seemed very clinical/medical/practical, and not very theoretical. Coming to it as someone who's been interested in psych for years, I know that everything this book details is not all this discipline has to offer. However, I fear someone with no background in psychology who is trying to determine their level of interest might be missing out on all the wonderful things psychology has to offer that this book did not mention.

  • Ryan Scicluna
    2018-12-25 09:18

    A nice introduction to the topic that covers many topics. It is indeed very short as some concepts and ideas are only explained briefly. This book stimulated my interest in psychology and I can say that i will surely read more books on the subject. Suggested Further Reading:Perspectives on Psychology Eysenck, M. W. 1994Key Studies in Psychology Gross, R. D. 1994Teach Yourself Psychology Hayes, N. 1994Psycholocy in Perspective Wade, C. 1997Your Memory: A Uesr's Guide Baddeley, A. 1996Manage Your Mind: The Mental Fitness Guide Butler, G. 1995Man's Search for Meaning Frankl, V. 1959Emotional Intelligence Goleman, D. 1996Eye and Brain: The Psychology of Seeing Gregory. R. L. 1997On Aggression Lorenz, K. 1996The Mind of The Mnemonist Luria, A. R. 1968The Pursuit of Happiness Myers, D. G. 1992The Evolution of Conciousness: The Origins of The Way We Think Ornstein, R. 1991The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat Sacks, O. 1985Irrationality: The Enemy Within Sutherland, S. 1992

  • G. Branden
    2019-01-14 07:33

    This is a tolerable introduction to the field, and does exactly what it says on the label, unlike some of the the titles in the VSI series, which seem to despair of offering an overview in 150 pages, so they give up and present the author's topical idiosyncrasies instead.The material presented here is very much what you will see in 700+ page undergraduate introductory psychology texts; there's simply a lot less of it.It does not achieve any depths impossible in a work of this length, and is particularly light on physiology, but otherwise covers the standard set of topics for a psych survey course (sensation/perception, motivation/emotion, language/thought, abnormal psych, social psych, and so forth).Recommended for anyone who wants to get a whiff of the field without having to inhale an expensive doorstop of a formal textbook.

  • Nguyễn
    2019-01-10 05:33

    Cuốn sách giúp người đọc có những kiến thức cơ bản, định hướng về tâm lý học. Cấu trúc trình bày sách đơn giản, dể hiểu, dẫn dắt người đọc một quá trình từ ngoài vào trong bằng những câu hỏi trọng tâm là những kết quả thực nghiệm kinh điển. Điều gì đi vào não người ? cái gì ở lại ? chúng ta xử lý như thế nào ? tại sao chúng ta làm việc ? phân loại và những bất thường ... Cuối cùng là những ứng dụng trong cuộc sống và những hướng phát triển.Cá nhân tôi rất thích đoạn nói về nhận định sai lầm của chúng ta về môn tâm lý học. Nó không giúp chúng ta đọc được sự nghĩ của người khác mà chỉ nhìn nhận hành động, lời nói và dự đoán suy nghĩ của họ. Một bộ môn khoa học nghiêm cứu về tâm lý con người làm tôi vẫn thắc mắc những câu hỏi: Ai đã tạo ra sự sống ? Ai đã tạo ra con người ? ...

  • M. Ashraf
    2019-01-03 10:27

    Another Short Introduction and again it doesn't go deep in any of its various topics just general view on different subjects.It starts with What is Psychology ? then go to a journey into the mind with Perception, Memory and Reason. what drive us, how we became this way, differences and patterns how we influence each others and ends with What is Psychology for?It can make you interesting in the subject but require more reading.The Experiments were great! some of them were crazy but still we learn something!Good book.

  • Tiago Faleiro
    2019-01-08 05:13

    Great book. Not much to say, as the title says, it's a very a short introduction to psychology. It gives a basic history of the field, and some of the topics it covers and how it can be applied in the real world. It's well structured and written, a great book to start with for anyone interested in psychology.

  • Kyle van Oosterum
    2019-01-07 10:13

    Compiling studies, tables and diagrams the authors have written a compelling introduction to the beautiful discipline of psychology. Psychology is defined multiple times as the "study of the mental life" and it has numerous branches with which to investigate the human condition in its interactions with people, environments and life itself.

  • Millie
    2018-12-31 07:17

    Very interesting book about the work of psychologists. I learnt lots of new things! The book is about the science of psychology, rather than disorders and cures. It's an interesting read for anyone, as it tells you a little bit more about yourself.

  • Dawn
    2019-01-24 11:24

    I think I'm a psychology snob. Or maybe I've just had too many psychology courses. This was a good introduction, but I felt like something was missing, I just can't pinpoint what. But I love the Very Short Introduction series. :)

  • Caleb Liu
    2019-01-10 04:31

    A fun, interesting and addictive introduction to Psychology filled with fine examples and not too technical for the layman. Most importantly, it captures your attention, which any good introduction should.

  • Mills College Library
    2019-01-08 09:25

    150 B9856v 2014

  • Hon Na hon
    2019-01-13 03:24

    แปลได้น่าเบื่อมาก

  • Kib Chan
    2019-01-03 11:30

    น่าสนใจ...น้อย

  • Daniel Wright
    2018-12-31 09:17

    A very interesting and wide-ranging basic introduction. Highly recommended.

  • Sarah
    2019-01-13 10:10

    After reading this, I am confident that I will not come across as a complete moron to the psych students in my class this summer.

  • Amanda
    2019-01-19 05:12

    A concise little overview of the different flavours of Psychology that never gets too dull or incomprehensible. Perfect for those curious about the field or wanting to brush up on lost knowledge.

  • David Badgery
    2019-01-05 05:23

    Good, clear introduction to Psychology and its sub-specialisms but surprisingly a very, very limited and unstructured Further Reading list

  • Megan Ashman
    2019-01-15 05:33

    A good introduction into Psychology, can't wait to read the next books in the series.